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  Grade XII-Chemistry


  • Concepts of solutions
  • Concentration of a solution
  • Chromatography and distillation
  • Concentration of ions in a solution
  • Factors that influence solubility
  • General rules for solubility; types of solutions
  • Ionic and covalent compounds 

Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry

  • Conservation of mass, energy, and charge
  • Types of chemical reactions
  • Moles; volume of gas at STP
  • Properties of mixtures/pure substances
  • Changes in matter
  • Energy transformations/exchanges involved in chemical reactions
  • Thermal energy - random motion of atoms and molecules
  • Temperature - average kinetic energy of the particles
  • Physical/chemical change
  • Exothermic/endothermic reactions
  • Intermolecular forces - hydrogen bonding
  • Physical properties of substances
  • Verify the law of conservation of energy
  • Activation energy in a chemical reaction
  • Forward/reverse reactions
  • Catalyzed/uncatalyzed reaction
  • Entropy 

Oxidation and Reduction

  • Balancing reactions
  • Corrosion; electroplating
  • Voltaic/electrolytic cells; electrolysis

Atomic and Molecular Structure

  • Properties of subatomic particles
  • Stable/unstable isotopes
  • Periodic table; physical characteristics of an element
  • Periodic table; chemical characteristics of an element
  • Periodic table - elements
  • Periodic table - elements; trends in ionization energy
  • Periodic table- number of electrons available for bonding
  • Nucleus of an atom- mass, size etc.
  • Periodic table- elements; nuclear accelerators
  • Quantum electron configuration - reactivity with other elements
  • Thomson’s discovery of the electron
  • Rutherford’s nuclear atom
  • Millikan’s oil drop experiment
  • Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect
  • Bohr model of the atom
  • Spectral lines
  • Planck's relationship 

Chemical Equations

  • Elements/compounds - scientific nomenclature
  • Chemical and nuclear reactions
  • Balancing equations

Gases and Their Properties

  • Kinetic Molecular Theory; Collision Theory
  • Gas laws
  • Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
  • Celsius/Kelvin temperature
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressures (composition of gases)
  • Graham’s law (diffusion of gases)
  • Universal Gas Law
  • Kinetic/potential energy to explain properties

Chemical Bonding

  • Characteristics of atoms involved in chemical bonding
  • Influence of intermolecular forces
  • Arrangement of atoms in substances
  • Electrostatic attraction
  • Lewis dot structures
  • Degree of polarity; ionization energy
  • van der Waals forces/hydrogen bonding
  • Chemical bonds
  • Molecular polarity

Nuclear Processes

  • Ionizing/penetrating power
  • Protons and neutrons
  • Transmutation; spontaneous decay; nuclear reactions
  • Substructures – quarks
  • Equations to represent nuclear reactions
  • Radioactive elements - half-life

Acids, Bases and Salts

  • Acids, bases, and salt solutions; neutralization reactions
  • Effects of acids and bases on an ecological system
  • pH value/scale
  • Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid–base definitions
  • Calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration
  • Stabilizing pH in acid–base reactions
  • Titration
  • Rate of a chemical reaction 

Chemical Thermodynamics

  • Exothermic/endothermic thermal energy
  • Problems involving heat flow/temperature changes
  • Specific/latent heat
  • Hess’s law to calculate enthalpy change
  • Gibbs free energy equation
  • Le Chatelier’s principle

Chemical Equilibrium

  • Forward/reverse reaction rates
  • Equilibrium constant
  • Potential energy diagram
  • Organic compounds
  •  saturated/unsaturated hydrocarbons

Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

  • Functional groups
  • Formation of large molecules
  • Bonding characteristics of carbon
  • Amino acids - building blocks of proteins              
  • Simple linear hydrocarbons/isomers
  • Isomers of organic compounds
  • R-group structure of amino acids
  • Organic reactions
  • Structural formulas



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